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Contents:


  1. Associated Data
  2. Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests
  3. Altered forests threaten sustainability of subsistence hunting
  4. Altered forests threaten sustainability of subsistence hunting

The goal of the BRI is to enable and conduct research that advances knowledge on the extraction, consumption and sustainability of bushmeat harvesting in tropical forests in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In partnership with key stakeholders at local, regional and national levels, CIFOR has led research in three thematic areas:. This in turn has resulted in significant traction and influence to address the function of forests, trees and agroforestry at the landscape scale in terms of reconciling competition for other land uses.

Through strategic partnerships, capacity building, and targeted outreach, CIFOR has managed to place the landscape approach at the center of sustainable development initiatives. The Bushmeat Data Map displays the thematic and geographic distribution of bushmeat-related research. Users can filter studies by continent, research theme s , study location, institutions, and more, as well as download results in multiple formats.

Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia

An essential step forward would be achieved by shifting reporting away from simplistic area-based figures toward statistics that incorporate measures of effective enforcement, such as the intactness of assemblages Scholes and Biggs and time-dependent changes in the abundance or distribution of hunting-sensitive species e. By exposing the inadequacies of current enforcement, this would apply more pressure on tropical nations to improve reserve management and wildlife protection in general.

Hunting Is Conservation - Hunting is Sustainable, Helps Species Thrive

The international conservation community and donor agencies should also pay much more attention to interventions that will help improve the administration and enforcement of entire protected-area networks, such as guard-training programs and facilities including modern patrolling technology and remote-detection equipment , legal capacity development, and training for extension officers.

Of course, many such activities are already being run, but there is an urgent need to expand these programs and shift the emphasis from selected site-based activities to those targeting capacity development at national and regional levels. Targeted species conservation programs aimed at restoring wildlife populations in reserves are now vital and may also be an effective way of engaging local people, because such programs can provide employment for field assistants, can be tied to ecotourist ventures and education initiatives, and can generate local pride in a reserve.

Again, there is a need to expand such efforts to a larger proportion of reserves and especially to those that, because of their proximity to human settlements, are most threatened. Finally, greater efforts must be applied to improving the management of wildlife in secondary forests and other matrix habitats in the landscape outside protected areas Chazdon , Koh and Wilcove , Prugh et al.

Although guards and patrolling remain essential frontline activities, the conservation community also needs to consider supporting a wider range of governance options Damania and Hatch , Yu et al. For example, in Ghana, it was found that a significant fine applied to the sale of bushmeat in urban markets was sufficient to reduce hunting to sustainable levels Damania et al. Moreover, enforcement at the point of sale can make use of existing capacity in the form of market inspectors and food-hygiene officers, and if fines are inadequate, alternative legal instruments, such as restaurant- or business-licensing laws, can be used to increase the penalties.

This approach also has the benefit that people rarely have the same qualms about imposing fines on urban businesses as they might on rural hunters and, because guns are not normally involved, the danger is greatly reduced. Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, the probability of detecting wildlife crimes can be greatly increased by employing hotlines, particularly when reports are linked to generous rewards.

By increasing the chance that hunters or wildlife traders get caught, such systems can greatly augment the deterrent effect of existing laws and penalties Damania and Hatch Unfortunately, one rarely sees such systems employed at anything approaching their full potential. Many tropical nations earn large sums of money from nature-based tourism, but governments often remain ignorant of the essential role that wildlife and nature reserves play in underpinning the industry, and prefer instead to invest in golf courses.

Partnerships with tour operators and government tourist agencies may therefore be an effective way of lobbying for improved wildlife management. Also, where tourist lodges own land next to reserves, they can serve as a buffer zone and help restrict poacher access Yu et al. Similarly, developing partnerships with logging Berry et al. In many parts of the tropics, hunting is now the biggest threat to tropical biodiversity. There is a need to acknowledge the unpalatable but undeniable fact that current tropical conservation efforts are failing.

A large proportion of the conservation estate is already empty forest, and with the loss of important symbionts, we can anticipate that the ecosystems in such reserves will continue to degrade unless their wildlife populations are restored. I would like to thanks my colleagues at Lambir, especially Tamaki Tamoi and Michiko Nakagawa, for sharing their observations and Gabriella M.

Fredriksson for sharing her unpublished checklists from Sungai Wain. Thanks also to Richard Corlett, Reuben Clements, and Douglas Yu for commenting on an earlier draft, and the three anonymous reviewers for their efforts to improve the manuscript. The fieldwork was partially funded by National Geographic Society Grant Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Defaunation of tropical nature reserves. Consequences of defaunation. Why are tropical conservation efforts failing to protect wildlife? Searching for solutions. References cited. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar.

Harrison rharrison xtbg. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Box 1.

Associated Data

View large Download slide. Figure 1. Box 2. Small reserves can be effective wildlife sanctuaries: Sungai Wain, east Kalimantan. Figure 2. Differential effects of hunting on pre-dispersal seed predation and primary and secondary seed removal of two Neotropical tree species.

Search ADS. Hornbills Buceros spp. Saving Borneo's bacon: The sustainability of hunting in Sarawak and Sabah. Google Preview. Bushmeat poaching reduces the seed dispersal and population growth rate of a mammal-dispersed tree. Evaluating the success of conservation actions in safeguarding tropical forest biodiversity.

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Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests

Developing conservation priorities based on forest type, condition, and threats in a poorly known ecoregion: Sulawesi, Indonesia. Beyond deforestation: Restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Logging concessions can extend the conservation estate for Central African tropical forests. Size-related differential seed predation in a heavily defaunated neotropical rain forest. Impacts of hunting on mammals in African tropical moist forests: A review and synthesis.

Nature reserves in South China: Observations on their role and problems in conserving biodiversity. Habitat use and conservation status of two elusive ground birds Carpococcyx radiatus and Polyplectron schleiermacheri in Sungai Wain protected forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Impacts of El Nio related drought and forest fires on sun bear fruit resources in lowland dipterocarp forest of East Borneo.

Bushmeat hunting and use in the Makira Forest, north-eastern Madagascar: A conservation and livelihoods issue. Dispersal in a Neotropical tree, Virola flexuosa Myristicaceae : Does hunting of large vertebrates limit seed removal? Impacts of roads, hunting, and habitat alteration on nocturnal mammals in African rainforests. Impact of subsistence hunting in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, and conservation options.


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Modeling the long-term sustainability of indigenous hunting in Manu National Park, Peru: Landscape-scale management implications for Amazonia. Wildlife decline in Cambodia, — Exploring the legacy of armed conflict. Flying foxes cease to function as seed dispersers long before they become rare. Bushmeat and the fate of trees with seeds dispersed by large primates in a lowland rain forest in western Amazonia.

Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Basin-wide effects of game harvest on vertebrate population densities in Amazonian forests: Implications for animal-mediated seed dispersal. Predation on artificial nests and caterpillar models across a disturbance gradient in Subic Bay, Philippines. Bushmeat supply and consumption in a tropical logging concession in northern Congo.

Altered forests threaten sustainability of subsistence hunting

Having your wildlife and eating it too: An analysis of hunting sustainability across tropical ecosystems. Plant-mammal interactions in tropical Bolivian forests with different hunting pressures. Recruitment of hornbill-dispersed trees in hunted and logged forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya. El Nio droughts and their effects on tree species composition and in tropical rain forests.

Bird community changes in response to single and repeated fires in a lowland tropical rainforest of eastern Borneo. Hunting of mammals reduces seed removal and dispersal of the afrotropical tree Antrocaryon klaineanum Anacardiaceae. The bushmeat harvest alters seedling banks by favoring lianas, large seeds, and seeds dispersed by bats, birds, and wind.


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Altered forests threaten sustainability of subsistence hunting

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