Manual Estuarine Processes. Uses, Stresses, and Adaptation to the Estuary

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Introduction
Contents:


  1. The State of Our Estuaries 2018
  2. Seeking the Seeps
  3. Benthic nutrient remineralization in a coastal lagoon ecosystem | SpringerLink
  4. Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

The fit for Coastal Plain estuaries is closest to the theoretical values. In addition, there is good agreement between typological classifications and statistical fits for the sizes and shapes of estuaries classified as either Coastal Plain or Bar Built.

By encapsulating the results in typological frameworks, the characteristics of any specific estuary can be compared against these theories and in a perspective of other estuaries. Importantly, the new dynamical theories for estuarine bathymetry take no account of the sediment regimes in estuaries. Hence the success of these theories provoke a reversal of the customary assumption that bathymetries are determined by their prevailing sediment regimes.

Conversely, it is suggested that the prevailing sediment regimes are in fact the consequence of rather than the determinant for estuarine bathymetries. It is shown how the exchange of sediments switches from export towards import as the ratio of tidal amplitude to depth increases and as sediment size decreases. Thus, quantitative explanations are provided for the trapping, sorting and high concentrations of sediments in estuaries. Within regions where tidal influences predominate, the ratio of sediment import IM to export EX is given by:. The conditions derived for maintaining stable bathymetry extend earlier concepts of flood and ebb-dominated regimes.

Interestingly, these derived conditions correspond with maximum sediment suspensions. Moreover, the associated sediment fall velocities are in close agreement with settling rates observed in many estuaries. Figure 12 illustrates how the balance between net import or export varies for: depths from 4 to 16m; fall velocities of 0.

It appears that this is close to conditions corresponding to maximum suspended sediment concentrations. Proceeding upstream from deep to shallow water, the balance between import of fine sediments and export of coarser ones becomes finer, i. Likewise, more imports, extending to a coarser fraction, occur on spring than on neap tides. However, as more fine sediments are trapped, the effective value of f decreases, resulting in a tendency to increase estuarine length.

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The State of Our Estuaries 2018

The consequent more energetic dynamics will tend to increase depths and introduce coarser sediments. Hence some equilibrium will prevail, governed by the balance between the type and quantity of marine sediment supply. The observed results shown in Figure 13 are representative of observed settlement of fine sediments in a wide range of European estuaries. These studies indicated that settling was primarily via the formation of micro and macro-flocs, invariably close to the range suggested by the present theory.

This typology illustrates why many estuaries show high levels of fine suspended sediments. Likewise, the order of magnitude of observed suspended sediment concentrations is in good agreement with theoretical values. These values are consistent with the range indicated from observations. Flushing times greater than the principal semi-diurnal tidal period Hence, there might be some ecological advantage to the bathymetric envelope defined by these two flushing times. Using the above theories, estimates of likely impacts of Global Climate Change are quantified across a range of estuaries.

Explaining existing morphologies was seen as pre-requisite to forecasting future changes. In addition to the direct dynamical-sedimentary relationships, the response to mean sea level changes includes the problem of how the coastline and estuaries re-adjust within the local coastal and topographical conditions. Morphological adjustment rates are generally slow and thus, existing bathymetries reflect some intermediate adjustment between antecedent formative conditions and a present-day dynamic equilibrium.

Thus, even where conditions favour net import or export of a certain sediment fraction, limited marine supply fluvial supply is generally much smaller in UK estuaries or resistance to erosion can severely delay morphological adjustments. Over millennia, the inter-glacial rise and fall of sea level determines estuarine morphology. Following the end of the last ice-age, retreating ice cover and the related rise in mean sea level transgression have resulted in receding coastlines and consequent major changes in both the dynamics and morphology of estuaries. Over the Holocene, the rate of rise has been controlled by isostatic rebound the rise of land masses that were depressed by the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period.

Over the last century, sea levels have risen between 10 and 20 cm, while forecasted rises for the next century range between 10 and cm. If sea level rise accelerates with climate change, there could be a switch from a predominately stable shoreline to much more active regression. In deeper water little sensitivity is shown, whereas in depths less than 5 m, increases in tidal current amplitude greater than 5 per cent occur. Table 3 provides quantitative indications of the resultant changes for the estuarine data sets shown in Figure 2.

Overall we anticipate, due to the 25 per cent variation in river flow, changes in:. Corresponding changes due a rise in mean sea level of 50 cm are: increases in tidal length of the order 1 to 2.

Seeking the Seeps

Definitions, processes and models in morphology. Morphology of estuaries. Estuarine morphological modelling.


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Log in. Page Discussion. Read View source View history. Jump to: navigation , search. Definition of Synchronous estuary:. Many estuaries can be considered 'synchronous', according to this definition. This is the common definition for Synchronous estuary, other definitions can be discussed in the article. This page was last modified on 28 June , at Privacy policy About Coastal Wiki Disclaimers. The main author of this article is David Prandle Please note that others may also have edited the contents of this article.

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Citation: David Prandle : Physical processes and morphology of synchronous estuaries. Serial No. Primary production and the global epidemic of phytoplankton blooms in the sea: A linkage? Cosper, E. Carpenter and V. Bricelj [eds. Coastal and Estuarine Studies No. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Villareal PDF 76 Furnas, M. Effect of wind and tidal currents. Marine Nature 2: Nutritional value of Phaeocystis pouchetii Prymnesiophyceae and other phytoplankton for Acartia spp. Copepoda : Ingestion, egg production and growth of nauplii. Marine Biology Okaichi, D. Anderson and T. Nemoto [eds. Fofonoff Inimical Effects, p.

The organism and its dynamics, p. Villareal and T.


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Ecological investigations of blooms of colonial Phaeocystis. Photosynthesis and growth rates. Size, abundance, and biochemical composition. Langdon and T. Short-term changes in the biology of a warm-core Gulf Stream Ring: Phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Inputs of subthermocline waters and nitrate onto the Campeche Bank. Continental Shelf Research 7: Occurrence and distribution of the brown tide in Narragansett Bay, p. PDF 66 Furnas, M. Deason Nitrogen dynamics in lower Narragansett Bay. Phytoplankton uptake, depletion rates of nitrogenous nutrient pools, and estimates of ecosystem remineralization.

Journal of Plankton Research 8: Seasonal variations in the phytoplankton biomass and productivity of a warm-core Gulf Stream ring. Deep-Sea Research PDF 64 Smayda, T. Variations and long-term changes in Narragansett Bay, a phytoplankton-based coastal marine ecosystem: relevance to field monitoring for pollution assessment, p. In, H. White [ed. Maryland Sea Grant College, Univ. PDF 63 Karentz, D. Temperature and the seasonal occurrence pattern of 30 dominant phytoplankton species in Narragansett Bay over a year period Marine Ecology Progress Series Phytoplankton growth in the sea: Some concepts, methodological approaches and observations, p.

In, C. Tseng [ed. Science Press, Beijing, China. Furnas and T. Diel changes in nitrite concentration and its dynamics in the chlorophyll maximum in the Gulf of Mexico. Deep-Sea Reseach Bienfang Suspension properties of various phyletic groups of phytoplankton and tintinnids in an oligotrophic, subtropical system. Marine Ecology 4: Th e Phytoplankton of Estuaries, p. Ketchum [ed. Elsevier Press, NY. PDF 58 Officer, C. Smayda and R. Mann Benthic filter feeding: A natural eutrophication control. Marine Ecology Progress Series 9: PDF 57 Deason, E. Experimental evaluation of herbivory in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and ctenophore-zooplankton-phytoplankton interactions in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, U.

Journal of Plankton Research 4: PDF 56 Deason, E. In, I. Morris [ed. Press, Berkeley, CA. Packard The phenomenon of anoxia as related to dinoflagellate blooms, p. Taylor and H. Seliger [eds. Developments in Marine Biology, Vol. Center for Ocean Management Studies, Univ. Rhode Island. Nixon, C.

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Benthic nutrient remineralization in a coastal lagoon ecosystem | SpringerLink

In, J. Thorpe and J. Gibbons [eds. Conf, Technical Information Center, U. From Phytoplankton to Biomass, p. Sournia [ed. Eco- and Morphotypes, p. Biogeographic Meaning; Indicators, p. Estimating Cell Numbers. What to Count? PDF 47 Hitchcock, G. Bioassay of lower Narragansett Bay waters during the winter-spring bloom using the diatom Skeletonema costatum. PDF 46 Hitchcock, G. The importance of light in the initiation of the winter-spring diatom bloom in Narragansett Bay.

Ceratium tripos O. Muller Nitzsch: A brief overview of its biology relative to its bloom dynamics in northeastern U. Sharp [ed. Anoxia on the Middle Atlantic Shelf during the Summer of OCE , pp. Hitchcock and T. Nutrient-phytoplankton relationships in Narragansett Bay during the summer bloom, p.

Academic Press, NY. Plankton processes in mid-Atlantic nearshore and shelf waters and energy-related activities, p. Manowitz [ed. PDF 42 Durbin, E. Krawiec and T. Seasonal studies on the relative importance of different size fractions of phytoplankton in Narragansett Bay USA. Reprinted in J. Cobb and M. Harlin [eds. Park Press, Maryland. Phased cell division in natural populations of the marine diatom Ditylum brightwelli, and the potential significance of diel phytoplankton behavior in the sea.

PDF 40 Smayda, T. Net phytoplankton and the greater than micron phytoplankton size fraction in upwelling waters off Baja California. Fishery Bulletin PDF 39 Smayda, T.

Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

Some experiments on the sinking characteristics of two freshwater diatoms. Bernhard, R. Eppley, G. Hasle, R. Marumo, G. Robinson, G. Semina and T. A review of methods used for quantitative phytoplankton studies. PDF 37 Smayda, T. Mitchell-Innes Dark survival of autotrophic, planktonic marine diatoms. PDF 36 Smayda, T. PDF 35 Holt, M. The effect of daylength and light intensity on the growth rate of the marine diatom, Detonula confervacea Cleve.

PDF 34 Smayda, T. Norwegian Journal of Botany A survey of phytoplankton dynamics in the coastal waters from Cape Hatteras to Nantucket. Rhode Island Marine Publ. Series No. Normal and accelerated sinking of phytoplankton in the sea. Marine Geology Costlow [ed. Fertility of the Sea. Green, S. Report on the effects of solid waste in the Port Royal mangroves, Kingston. Final year undergraduate study. Goodbody, I.

Harvey, G. Aspects of the biology and artisanal fisheries of three Caribbean clupeids in Jamaican waters. Unpublished PhD thesis, Zoology Dept. Iversen, E. Preliminary shrimp surveys on the south coast of Jamaica. Nagelkerken, I. Importance of shallow-water bay biotopes as nurseries for Caribbean reef fishes. PhD thesis, Univ. Ross, F. The distribution, abundance and development of young Jamaican reef fishes. Sedberry, G. The fish community of a shallow tropical lagoon in Belize, Central America.

Estuaries Siung, A. Studies of the biology of three species of mangrove "oysters" Isognomon alatus Gmelin, Crassostrea rhizophora Guilding, and Ostrea equestris Say in Jamaica. Unpublished PhD, Zool. Springer, V. Seasonality of fishes on a south Florida shore.