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  1. Low Fertility and Reproductive Health in East Asia | Naohiro Ogawa | Springer
  2. Background
  3. Low Fertility and Reproductive Health in East Asia
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While Asian epidemics will almost certainly never rise to the levels seen in Sub-Saharan Africa, prevalence rates for the region as a whole could easily reach percent over the next decade if effective prevention programs are not implemented. And if Asia's two largest countries, China and India, reach prevalence levels of only 2—3 percent, they will account for more than half of all infections in the world. Although the potential for expanding HIV epidemics is high, experience in Thailand and Cambodia shows that well-targeted prevention programs can be extremely effective.

Child survival and healthcare in developing countries of Asia by Sidney B. October An estimated 11 million children in developing countries die each year before reaching their fifth birthday. Findings from 15 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Asia between and shed light on recent trends in child survival and aspects of healthcare that potentially affect mortality rates.

Information on medical care during pregnancy and childbirth, child immunization, treatment of children who are ill, and child nutritional status is presented for Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam in Southeast Asia and Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan in South Asia.

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Low Fertility and Reproductive Health in East Asia | Naohiro Ogawa | Springer

The three countries with the lowest under-five mortality rates—Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia—rank high in terms of most aspects of child healthcare. Assessing the effects of population change, economic growth, and globalization on income inequality by Jeffrey G. Williamson and Matthew Higgins. July A recent analysis—covering income-inequality data from 92 countries over four decades—suggests that inequality tends to increase at early stages of economic development and fall at later stages. The most important determinant of inequality is not economic growth, however, but rather changes in population age structure.

These population changes occur as mortality and fertility drop during the course of economic and social modernization.

Background

This analysis suggests that policies that make health and family planning services widely available will contribute to a reduction in income inequality by lowering mortality and fertility rates. Caring for the elderly and holding down a job: How Are women coping in Japan? Retherford, and Yasuhiko Saito. Even in households where the elderly family member is very old or seriously disabled, large proportions of women continue to hold down full- or part-time jobs.

These finding should be reassuring to Japanese policymakers who are concerned that middle-aged women remain in the labor force while continuing to care for elderly family members at home. Population and globalization by Sumner J.

Low Fertility and Reproductive Health in East Asia

Globalization has both direct and indirect effects on population. More importantly, however, the global spread of public health, medical, and family planning technology has played a key role in worldwide gains in life expectancy and reductions in fertility. Over the past 50 years, support from international donors has been critical in improving life expectancy and reducing fertility through the global spread of modern health and family planning technology. In several Asian countries, these efforts have contributed to unprecedented economic growth.

More broadly, international support has been remarkably successful in reducing the gap in fertility and life expectancy between rich and poor countries. Population and environmental challenges in Asia by Vinod Mishra. Population growth and economic development contribute to many environmental problems in Asia. These include pressure on land, habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity, water scarcity and water pollution, air pollution, and global warming and climate change.

Projections of future resource requirements and environmental stress are worrying, whether the focus is on population numbers alone or on the effects of poorly planned economic development and changing consumption patterns. AIDS awareness is much lower in rural areas than in urban areas and is slightly lower among women than among men. In addition to mass media, face-to-face meetings with health and family planning personnel, supported by appropriate information materials, appear to be a promising—and underexploited—avenue for increasing AIDS awareness.

Assessing women's well-being in Asia by Sidney B. After centuries of male domination in much of Asia, women's lives are improving with economic development, social modernization, and better access to health and family planning technology. Yet many Asian women still face problems of low status at home and in the workplace. Yet behavioral patterns that increase the risk of HIV transmission—such as unprotected sex and needle sharing—are not uncommon in many Asian societies.

Without interventions to modify high-risk behavior, the virus continues to spread, and current infection levels could rise rapidly in many Asian countries. Over the past 50 years, there has been a fundamental shift in population dynamics in Asia. Fueled by economic growth and the diffusion of new ideas and health and family planning technologies, both mortality and fertility have declined in every country of the region.

Between and , life expectancy in East Asia rose from 43 to 72 years, and fertility dropped from more than five to less than two children per woman. The countries of Southeast and South and Central Asia have begun the transition to low mortality and fertility, but most are not as far advanced. Yet even in the less developed countries of the region, death and birth rates have fallen, and population growth rates and structures are changing. This demographic transition has provided favorable conditions for accelerated social and economic development. Recent surveys show that nearly three-quarters of rural women in Nepal and more than half of rural women in Indonesia marry while still in their teens.


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In both countries, four out of 10 rural women have a child before they reach age Analysis shows that women's education is the only variable consistently associated with later marriage and childbearing. Although the effects of primary education are small, early marriage and childbearing drop steeply among women with junior high or higher education.

Does "being connected" reduce the risk of teenage drinking, smoking, and drug use? Survey findings on drinking, smoking, and drug use in Thailand and the Philippines suggest that young people who feel strongly "connected" to their communities are less likely than others to engage in risk-taking behavior.

What is SUB-REPLACEMENT FERTILITY? What does SUB-REPLACEMENT FERTILITY mean?

Factors such as living with parents, staying in school, having plans for college, and being strongly religious are associated with low use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illegal drugs. Although the situation is improving, women and children still face serious health problems in India by Sidney B. Westley and Vinod K. Although infant and child mortality decreased between and , 7 percent of all children born in India still die during the first year of life, and 9 percent die before reaching age five.

Among the most striking findings from the second National Family Health Survey NFHS-2 are the high infant mortality rates among children born to teenage mothers and children born within two years of a previous birth. Clearly, efforts to expand the use of temporary contraceptive methods—both to space births and to delay childbearing—could have an important impact on infant mortality. The clear link between maternity-related medical care and infant mortality also reinforces the urgency of ensuring that all pregnant women receive professional care during pregnancy and childbirth. Undernutrition and anemia are widespread among women and children in every state and in nearly every socioeconomic group.

The proportion of children age 12—23 months who have been fully immunized against six preventable diseases has risen, but rates still fall well short of universal immunization. New survey measures fertility and family planning trends in India by Sidney B. Westley and Robert D. Fertility levels vary widely among India's regions and states.

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Nearly one-half 48 percent of currently married women are using some contraceptive method. Female sterilization is by far the most popular method, used by 34 percent of all currently married women age 15— The use of spacing methods pills, IUDs, condoms remains extremely low. Policy options to support Asia's growing elderly population by Sidney B.

Effective strategies that foster economic security for the elderly should include, as a priority, policies that increase labor market flexibility and remove barriers faced by older workers. The elimination of gender discrimination in the workplace will allow women—the largest group of elderly—to better prepare for old age. Policies are also needed that favor education and job training, that help families support and care for their elderly relatives, and that provide old-age benefits based on a carefully considered balance between self-funding and resource transfers from younger to older generations.

Over 20 countries had birth rates below an average of 1. Moreover, below-replacement fertility is now emerging in less predictable places: on the densely populated island of Java in Indonesia, in four provinces in Iran, and in the city of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia. Note: The total fertility rate is the average number of children a woman would have, given prevailing birth rates. The Earth is already heavily populated. Its population will grow from the present 6 billion to at least 9 billion by The answer is that the governments of the countries with very low fertility rates are evidently not celebrating the prospect that a somewhat lower global population would be achieved as a result of major population decline in their countries.

That is, while some people like to think in terms of a common global humanity, most people and most governments care more about the future viability of their own families and countries. The problem with low fertility is that it reduces population size not at all ages but only among the young. Low fertility produces an age structure that creates a momentum for future population decline, a situation that must be stopped at some point if the population is to be demographically sustainable.

Also, populations with low fertility can fall in size at an extremely rapid rate. The book focuses on East Asia which is numerically large but relatively under-researched with regard to issues covered in various chapters. The relevance of the volume, however, goes beyond countries in East Asia. The book breaks new grounds and reveals little known facts regarding the influence of endocrine disruptors on male fertility through falling sperm counts, the phenomenon of marital sexlessness and about the sexual behavior of adolescents in East Asia.

Introduction: Naohiro Ogawa, Iqbal H. Shah, and Gayl Ness. Van Look.


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See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview This book provides a unique blend of social and biomedical sciences in the field of low fertility and reproductive health. Product Details Table of Contents. Show More. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Borders, Mobility and Technologies of Control. The implications for criminology of territorial borders are relatively unexplored.