- Multicultural Conservatism in America
- Guess Who's Coming to Dinner Now?
- Guess Who's Coming to Dinner Now?: Multicultural Conservatism in America
- [PDF] Guess Who's Coming to Dinner Now?: Multicultural Conservatism in America - Semantic Scholar
A Lott of the answer may be found in the Bushes, there among the doubting Thomases. Sign up for our Solidarity Newsletter. Get articles and upcoming events delivered every month.
Depoliticizing Race? Useful for the Right Strategically, Black spokespeople have great utility for the right. ATC , January-February First name or full name. Monthly Newsletter. Weekly Digest Subscription. See the current issue. Solidarity depends on the generous contributions of its friends and allies to continue its work. Twitter YouTube. Facebook RSS Feed. Carrying the torch for labor renewal. The future demands environmental justice. Part Two of the paper highlights prominent issues in public debates about multiculturalism and ethno-cultural diversity through a review of relevant literature and media commentary.
The discussion focuses on issues in public debates in the last ten years, because—while the challenges of the past decade may, in many cases, have roots in the policies, practices and issues of previous decades—the events and concerns catalysing public debate in the past decade have profoundly changed the way in which society has engaged with the concept of multiculturalism. Part Two broadens the discussion of multiculturalism beyond Australia in recognition of the fact that the issues, events, and even rhetoric, that have animated Australian debates about multiculturalism, particularly in the past ten years, transcend national borders and have reverberated in various forms in other parts of the world.
While there continue to be significant differences amongst the countries discussed there are also some interesting parallels. As global migration increases in scale and complexity Australia is one among many nations that are faced with the challenges of responding effectively and imaginatively to the increasing diversity of contemporary societies. The Appendices to the paper contain a list of key Australian Government statements and reports, key Australian multicultural institutions, state and territory government documents and websites, and a list of key references and resources used in the paper.
Multicultural Conservatism in America
Multiculturalism was a concept and policy devised to respond to the increasing ethno-cultural diversity of Australian society resulting from mass immigration in the decades following World War II, and the abandonment of racially restricted immigration policies in the s, in a way that overcame the limitations of previous approaches of assimilation and integration. Assimilation policies of the s and s required new arrivals to learn English, adopt Australian cultural practices and become indistinguishable from the Australian-born population as quickly as possible.
By the late s, government policy had moved towards a policy of integration, reflecting a greater awareness of the difficulties faced by new migrants and an acceptance of the possibility that migrants could integrate successfully in Australian society without losing their national identities completely. Echoing developments in other immigrant-receiving countries, notably Canada, by the late s there was a growing acceptance of broader expressions of cultural diversity or 'multiculturalism' within Australian society. Over time the term 'multiculturalism' has come to refer to the demographic reality of cultural diversity, a set of policies and policy orientations, as well as a concept which articulates a normative ideal or ideals about society.
Multiculturalism has served a variety of goals over the years, including, the pursuit of social justice, the recognition of identities and appreciation of diversity, the integration of migrants, nation-building, and attempts to achieve and maintain social cohesion.
From its inception, multiculturalism has been a contested policy and concept, both in Australia and overseas, with detractors often criticising it as a divisive policy and a concept that was allegedly lacking in substance and precision. In the past decade or so, in Australia, as well as a number of prominent immigrant-receiving countries in North America and Europe, the concept of multiculturalism has come under criticism.
In both public and government arenas, debate on the benefits of integration and assimilation has re-emerged. Public discourse on the concept and policy of multiculturalism, and ethno-cultural diversity more broadly, have variously evolved in accordance with the particular historical and political foundations of the countries referred to in this paper.
In the settler societies of Australia, the United States and Canada public discourse on multiculturalism is mediated by the particular settlement histories of each of those countries. A crucial element of cultural and race relations in each of those countries is the historical treatment of Indigenous peoples and their contemporary place and welfare in these societies.do.patriciorivera.com/the-circle-the-heirs-of-gorus.php
Guess Who's Coming to Dinner Now?
As recognised, for example in the Australian context by the Australian Human Rights Commission AHRC , discussions on multiculturalism must necessarily include Indigenous Australians and include engagement with issues of reconciliation. While the policy of multiculturalism was first introduced in Australia at a federal level, Australian state and territory governments have subsequently developed their own multicultural policy frameworks.
A significant proportion of multicultural policy development and implementation now occurs at the state and territory level and a great deal of work is also undertaken at the grassroots level, by community organisations and non-government organisations NGOs. However, it is beyond the scope of the present paper to provide a detailed account of multicultural policy development and practice in each of the Australian states and territories, and the proliferation of multicultural initiatives at the grassroots level.
In , the Curtin Government established Australia's first Department of Immigration in order to manage the post-war immigration of migrants and displaced persons. The Government's assimilation policies were based on an assumption that this would not be difficult for new arrivals given time. Settlement assistance was limited to the provision of migrant hostels and some language tuition. By the s and s, the focus on 'assimilation' was replaced by a focus on 'integration', and then on to 'multiculturalism' in recognition of the challenges facing migrants in settling into Australian society and acceptance that new arrivals may not want to lose their cultural identity.
Multiculturalism was first presented as the basis for migrant settlement, welfare and social-cultural policy in Australia in a speech entitled A Multi-Cultural Society for the Future , delivered by the Minister for Immigration under the Whitlam Government, Al Grassby. Lopez argues that by this point, Fraser, who took an interest in immigrant and ethnic affairs and was politically and morally predisposed to cultural pluralism, had adopted multiculturalism as a model on which to found migrant settlement and welfare policy.
In a submission to the Australian Population and Immigration Council, entitled Australia as a Multicultural Society , the Australian Ethnic Affairs Council, appointed by the Fraser Government, articulated the first official definition of multiculturalism in an approach they called 'cultural pluralism', based on the principles of social cohesion, equality of opportunity and cultural identity. In our view, an acceptance of the multicultural nature of Australian society implies that government and established institutions acknowledge the validity of ethnic cultures and respond in terms of ethnic beliefs, values and customs What we believe Australia should be working towards is not a oneness, but a unity, not a similarity, but a composite, not a melting pot but a voluntary bond of dissimilar people sharing a common political and institutional structure.
In the context of decreasing migration from European countries, and increased acceptance of refugees from South-East Asia, the Fraser Government announced the Review of Post-Arrival Programs and Services to Migrants on 31 August and asked Frank Galbally, a prominent Melbourne barrister, to be the Review chairperson. As Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser explained:. We established it in the light of our concern to ensure that the changing needs of migrants are being met as effectively as possible.
We asked the Review to have regard to our Federalism policy and our objective of supporting the enterprise and dedication of community groups who provide programs and services to migrants It was for this reason we established the Review. The Review was tasked with examining and reporting on the effectiveness of programs and services for migrants which were funded by the Commonwealth and provided by non-government organisations, and to identify areas of need.
The resulting Galbally Report, presented to parliament by Malcolm Fraser in April and subsequently seen as a watershed in the development of multicultural policy, identified multiculturalism as a key concept for the future development of government immigration policy. The Government agrees with the general conclusions of the Review. It agrees Australia is at a critical stage in developing a cohesive, united, multicultural nation.
It agrees there is a need to change the direction of its services to migrants and that further steps to encourage multiculturalism are needed. In , following the Galbally Report on the Review of Post-Arrival Programs and Services to Migrants, there was a shift in the government policy framework for responding to migrant settlement and resulting cultural and linguistic diversity, towards multiculturalism.
Fraser also identified the broader societal goal of promoting multiculturalism as part of his Government's response to the Galbally Report:. The Government accepts that it is now essential to give significant further encouragement to develop a multicultural attitude in Australian society. It will foster the retention of the cultural heritage of different ethnic groups and promote intercultural understanding.
Recognising that education was a key element in achieving this goal, Fraser committed funding to the development of multicultural and community language education programs in schools. In addition, the Fraser Government established the Australian Institute of Multicultural Affairs AIMA to engage in and commission research and to advise the Commonwealth on multicultural issues; extended ethnic radio services and grants to ethnic community organisations; and established the Special Broadcasting Service SBS. State and territory governments also established Ethnic Affairs Commissions and Migrant Settlement Councils following the Galbally Report, with the s as a whole being a decade which saw the significant consolidation of multicultural policies and institutions.
The Hawke Labor Government introduced a number of cuts to government programs in the mids, including the abolition of the AIMA in By the late s Australia had a high migrant intake which included significant numbers of new arrivals from Asian and Middle-Eastern countries. Confusion and mistrust of multiculturalism, focussing on the suspicion that it drove immigration policy, was very broadly articulated. Many people, from a variety of occupational and cultural backgrounds, perceived it as divisive. The majority of these people also expressed concern about immigrants' commitment to Australia and to Australian principles and institutions.
The FitzGerald Report argued that the need for a sharper economic focus in the selection of immigrants is the most central issue in immigration reform. In the same year the initial bipartisanship that had characterised the introduction of a multicultural framework was effectively broken when then Opposition Leader, John Howard, called for the abandonment of the term multiculturalism, and a focus on 'One Australia' that:. Some of the issues raised in the FitzGerald Report were manifested in the Hawke Government's multicultural policy statement, the National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia.
The initiatives announced by the Hawke Government as part of the new policy included: the establishment of a National Office of Overseas Skills Recognition; expansion of the Government's Access and Equity Strategy beyond immigrants to address all groups encountering racial, religious, cultural or linguistic barriers to accessing government services; continued and expanded support for English language teaching and second language learning; and a community relations campaign to address ethnic diversity and social cohesion issues.
Academic, Gwenda Tavan, has described the years of the Hawke and Keating Labor Governments between and as being characterised by the expansion of multicultural programs, strong efforts to place multiculturalism within a nationalist narrative where cultural diversity and tolerance were part of Australian national identity, as well the strengthening of relationships between ethnic communities and the Commonwealth and state Labor governments.
Despite the growth of multicultural programs in this period, the social justice objectives of multicultural policy were undermined by evidence of persisting structural inequalities and injustices facing particular migrant communities as well as enduring disadvantage faced by Indigenous Australians. The Coalition Government that won the federal election was led by Prime Minister John Howard, who for many years had been a vocal critic of multiculturalism.
The election also brought Independent candidate, Pauline Hanson, into Federal Parliament on the strength of the largest swing in the election—19 per cent—in the former Labor seat of Oxley in the state of Queensland. In the face of public criticism of multiculturalism, the NMAC, including new members appointed by the Howard Government in June , called for leadership in defence of multiculturalism, in its May report, Australian Multiculturalism for a New Century: Towards Inclusiveness.
The New Agenda explicitly recognised that while Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, as Australia's 'First Peoples', 'provide a foundation for the cultural diversity of the nation, it is appropriate that their distinct needs and rights be reaffirmed and accorded separate consideration'. This new statement reaffirms the government's commitment to promoting diversity, understanding and tolerance in all areas of endeavour.
These actions are especially important given the tragic events of 11 September in the United States of America and 12 October in Bali and the changed global environment in which we live. The New Agenda was updated to reflect a strategic shift in focus to unity and social cohesion in response to issues arising out of the threat of terrorism, and led to the development of community management strategies to 'manage existing and potential tensions' surrounding events such as terrorist attacks and the war in Iraq. The focus on terrorism and Islamic radicalism saw the creation of the Muslim Community Reference Group in September , following the London bombings of 7 July, to 'provide advice on how government and the Muslim communities can work together more effectively to address intolerance and achieve a more inclusive society'.
Supporting Australian Muslims to become more integrated and connected with the rest of the community, particularly in terms of jobs, educational attainment, and participation in community activities, is an important aspect of preventing extremism and violent ideologies gaining influence in Australia. Gwenda Tavan points out that as Australia's immigrant intake, in both permanent and temporary categories, increased significantly between the late s and overall funding for multicultural, citizenship and settlement programs also increased in the years surrounding the release of this policy.
Then Prime Minister, John Howard, stated that while the change did not mean that the term multiculturalism was defunct, it was made 'in recognition of the obvious fact, and obvious belief on the part of the entire Australian community, that immigration should lead to citizenship'. In , DIAC officials offered this response when questioned about the removal of the word 'multicultural' from the Department's title:. The government's settlement and cultural diversity policy and programmes give effect to the four guiding principles of the Galbally report.
Under the policy, subject to the law, all Australians have the right to express their own culture and beliefs and have a reciprocal obligation to respect the right of others to do the same Government funding for settlement services recognises the need for specific programmes, based on the principles of self-reliance and participation.
Guess Who's Coming to Dinner Now?: Multicultural Conservatism in America
Ministers use the word integration more frequently now than they may have previously, but the department's responsibilities in administering programs have not changed. He confirmed that multicultural and ethnic affairs continued to be within the Department's responsibilities under the relevant administrative arrangements orders and the Department continued to administer a number of cultural diversity programs, such as the 'Living in Harmony Program' and the 'National Action Plan to Build on Social Cohesion, Harmony and Security'.
While in Opposition, Labor had given some indication of its policy direction on this issue. In response to the Howard Government's decision to dispense with the term 'multiculturalism' in the name of the Department of Immigration, the Labor Opposition proposed that it would establish two new offices in the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet to deal with issues of integration and multiculturalism, as well as citizenship.
Opposition leader, Kim Beazley, stated:. Integration and multiculturalism must be recognised when we develop education and health policies, policies for the disabled, for the ageing, for workers, for children, and for mums and dads. And citizenship policies should reach all of us, not just migrants. Early in its term in office the Rudd Labor Government announced it was broadly reviewing how best to foster and promote the benefits of cultural diversity in the Australian community, including through a review of the 'Living in Harmony' program which had been operating since The AMAC's first statement to government, 'The people of Australia' noted the enduring reality and necessity of multiculturalism to Australia.
It made recommendations to government on issues including the importance of ensuring equal access to services for all Australians, the need to tackle discrimination, prejudice and racism, and the need to provide opportunities to all members of Australia's population for participation in community life. The statement emphasised that government has a responsibility to 'maintain a just, inclusive and cohesive society'.
In welcoming this statement, the Minister for Immigration, Senator Chris Evans, stated: 'The government is committed to ensuring that future multicultural policy is based on participation and inclusion. It is a policy that is about all Australians and it should seek to benefit us all'. At the time of the August election the Labor Government had not released a new policy on multiculturalism. I think that it's important that we recognise the diversity of Australian society but these days on both sides of politics we tend to talk more in terms of citizenship and I'm happy to keep doing that.
I think that it's important that we acknowledge the diversity of Australia but I think it's also important to focus on the unity of Australia and that's what I want to do. The Gillard Government has met with criticism from the Federation of Ethnic Communities Councils FECCA for the removal of the term 'multiculturalism', with Council spokesperson, Pino Migliorino, indicating that 'there is a great deal of community concern about this'. All Australian states and territories currently have policies and bodies dealing with multiculturalism. The Act expanded the range of public authorities to which multicultural service delivery obligations applied to include state-owned corporations and local government authorities in recognition of the critical role of local governments in delivering services to the community.
A review of the EAPS program undertaken in found that, as compared with other Australian jurisdictions as well as countries with comparable multicultural frameworks, namely, Canada, the United Kingdom and New Zealand, the NSW multicultural policy framework was the most effective example of multicultural governance that they reviewed internationally and within Australia. The principles of multiculturalism in Victoria are enshrined in the Multicultural Victoria Act Vic.
On 14 March the Victorian Government launched a new multicultural policy statement, All of us: Victoria's multicultural policy , following a consultation process focused on the themes of advancing equality by supporting the human rights of all Victorians, supporting cultural, linguistic and religious diversity, fostering unity and promoting community harmony and boosting economic advantage.
Following the publication of the Totaro Report in the Commission was increased in size from eight to 11 members, and its functions broadened to allow the Commission a stronger role in ethnic rights advocacy and strengthen its advisory role. Following a consultation process initiated in November , in the Western Australian Government launched the OMI Strategic Plan for —, to achieve the objectives of full participation for CALD communities, equity, and promoting the benefits of Western Australia's cultural and linguistic diversity.
Tasmania's multicultural policy is coordinated by Multicultural Tasmania, an agency located within the Department of Premier and Cabinet. Historically, multiculturalism in Australia has been contested both as a concept and policy framework. Lopez argues that by the mids some earlier proponents of multiculturalism such as Jerzy Zubrzycki and Sir James Gobbo, were engaging in 'post-multicultural' theorising by suggesting that 'multiculturalism' should be replaced with 'cultural diversity' as multiculturalism was a 'self-conscious' term that should no longer be necessary and had outlived its purpose.
Some have argued that debates about multiculturalism in Australia have often been racialised—that is, mediated through ethnic and racial categories of perception—and had the effect of questioning whether certain sectors of the Australian population were incompatible with, or posed a threat to, Australian society. In her first speech to Federal Parliament, Hanson stated:. Immigration and multiculturalism are issues that this government is trying to address, but for far too long ordinary Australians have been kept out of any debate by the major parties.
I and most Australians want our immigration policy radically reviewed and that of multiculturalism abolished. I believe we are in danger of being swamped by Asians They have their own culture and religion, form ghettos and do not assimilate. Of course, I will be called racist but, if I can invite whom I want into my home, then I should have the right to have a say in who comes into my country.
A truly multicultural country can never be strong or united. Hanson and the One Nation party, formed in and led by Hanson, drew much of its support from Queensland, but reached the height of its national popularity in the federal election. Between the late s and anxieties around 'foreigners' and threats to the national community coalesced around the issues of so called 'ethnic gang rapes' and the arrival of, predominantly Muslim, asylum seekers on boats off the coast of Australia.
Every nation has the right to effectively control its borders and to decide who comes here and under what circumstances, and Australia has no intention of surrendering or compromising that right They do not. The phrase seemed, however, a perfect if controversial way to. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page.
[PDF] Guess Who's Coming to Dinner Now?: Multicultural Conservatism in America - Semantic Scholar
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